This innovative, pedagogically driven text explains difficult concepts in a student-oriented manner. The book offers a
rigorous and accessible treatment of general chemistry in the context of relevance. Chemistry is presented visually
through multi-level images—macroscopic, molecular and symbolic representations—helping students see the connections
among the formulas (symbolic), the world around them (macroscopic), and the atoms and molecules that make up the
world (molecular). Among other revisions, the Second Edition offers a crisp new design, adds more challenging problems,
and significantly revises coverage of electrochemistry.
Table of contents
Chapter 1 Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving
Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements
Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations
Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions
Chapter 5 Gases
Chapter 6 Thermochemistry
Chapter 7 The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom
Chapter 8 Periodic Properties of the Elements
Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory
Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes, Valence Bond Theory, and
Molecular Orbital Theory
Chapter 11 Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
Chapter 12 Solutions
Chapter 13 Chemical Kinetics
Chapter 14 Chemical Equilibrium
Chapter 15 Acids and Bases
Chapter 16 Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium
Chapter 17 Free Energy and Thermodynamics
Chapter 18 Electrochemistry
Chapter 19 Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry
Chapter 20 Organic Chemistry
Chapter 21 Biochemistry
Chapter 22 Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Chapter 23 Metals and Metallurgy
Chapter 24 Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
New to this edition
• Approximately 250 new end-of-chapter problems
have been added, most of these in the cumulative and
challenge categories. As a result, the book now has about 20% more cumulative problems and about 50% more
• A new design
increases readability, clarity, and visual appeal. Readers will find the text itself easier to read, and
will also find the two and three column in-text examples easier to navigate and work through. The result is a cleaner,
crisper presentation of the material.
• In chapter 18 (Electrochemistry), the presentation of the calculation of cell potentials has been changed
from E° cell
, where E°oxidation
simply – E° anode
—Although the two methods are numerically and mathematically equivalent, user feedback shows that the
second method is conceptually superior because the driving force of an electrochemical cell really is a
difference, not a sum.
—Both ways give the same answer, but the difference method is a more conceptually accurate way to think
of the problem.
• A new section on thermal energy transfer
has been added to chapter 6 (Thermochemistry). The addition of
this material (in section 6.4), as well as the corresponding new example and conceptual connection, gives students a
better foundation for understanding calorimetry.
• The coverage of Coulomb’s law has been moved from chapter 9 (Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory) to chapter 8 (Periodic Properties of the Elements).
The earlier introduction of Coulomb’s law, in section 8.3, allows a
better explanation of key concepts in chapter 8, including penetration, shielding, sub-level energy splitting in
multielectron atoms, and effective nuclear charge.
• Chapter 12 (solutions) has been reorganized so that all the colligative properties are now covered in one
section (12.6) entitled Colligative Properties: Vapor Pressure Lowering, Freezing Point Depression, Boiling
Point Elevation, and Osmotic Pressure.
A separate section (12.7) covers the colligative properties of strong
electrolyte solutions. The new organization groups conceptually similar concepts together and makes the chapter
progress more logically.
• A new section has been added to chapter 17 (Free Energy and Thermodynamics)
in order to better describe
the concepts of microstates and macrostates. This addition to section 17.3 helps lay the foundation for a better
understanding of the concept of entropy.
• The Solutions Manual has been thoroughly accuracy checked
and completely redesigned to improve student
ease of use.
• Within MasteringChemistry®, the number of randomizable end-of-chapter problems has been greatly
and problems now feature both numerical and chemical randomization.
Features & benefits
• The relevance of chemistry to students’ everyday lives, their future careers, and their world
consistently and effectively. Dr. Tro discusses topics such as acid rain, chlorofluorocarbons and their impact on Earth’s
ozone layer, nerve signal transmission, bonding models and AIDS drugs, and artificial sweeteners in order to make the
• Students’ problem-solving skills are developed through a consistent step-by-step framework
encourages students to think logically through the problem-solving process rather than simply memorizing formulas.
— Tro’s structured, consistent, and visual problem-solving methodology reflects that a main goal of general
chemistry is to teach students how to solve problems.
— Tro’s four-step Sort, Strategize, Solve, and Check approach helps students relate the concept of the
problem to the solution through an explicit conceptual plan for each problem. This method helps students
understand where to start when given a problem and to think through solving the problem rather than
simply formula hunting based on the given information.
— Two- and three-column example formats help students to understand the logic and purpose of each step
in the problem-solving process as well as the details of its implementation. Tro’s procedure maps not only
work out a problem for students, but in many cases also applies the same methodology to another
—Why are some examples covered in one column rather than two? Some topics can be covered with just
one example (with the explanation in the left column and the worked out example in the right column),
while other topics are best covered by having two side-by-side examples (with the explanation in the left
column and the two side-by-side examples in the center and right column).
• Multipart images include symbolic, macroscopic, and molecular perspectives
that are fundamental to
visualizing and understanding chemistry.
—Tro’s multipart images help students to see the relationship between the formulas they write down on
paper (symbolic), the world they see around them (macroscopic), and the atoms and molecules that
compose that world (molecular).
—Abundant molecular-level views show students the connection between everyday processes visible to the
eye and what atoms and molecules are doing.
—Illustrations include extensive labels and annotations to guide students’ attention to key elements in the
art and help them to understand the processes depicted.
• Conceptual understanding
—The opening section of each chapter introduces many of its main themes through a compelling situation
or example of real-world importance.
—Each chapter includes several Conceptual Connections, in which students are asked to think about
concepts and solve problems without doing any math.
• A chemically thorough treatment of numerous topics
in appropriate depth is provided, while ensuring that
students are able to understand them:
—Derivation of ideal gas law from kinetic molecular theory
—Electron diffraction and the photoelectric effect
—Molecular orbital theory
—Collision theory and reactions rates
—Simplifying assumptions in equilibrium calculations
—Free energy changes for non-standard states
—Stoichiometry is a challenging first-semester topic. In chapter 4, Tro likens reaction stoichiometry to a
cooking recipe. He explains how making a pizza with various ingredients is analogous to the concept of
stoichiometry. This example is used to further discuss the limiting reactant, theoretical yield, and percent
steps students through problem solving while promoting understanding of chemical concepts
outside of the classroom.
—The MasteringChemistry tutorial system helps students figure out where they are going wrong when
problem solving by providing answer-specific feedback and coaching. By offering feedback specific to
wrong answers given, MasteringChemistry tutorials coach 85% of students to the correct answer.
—The program enables professors to compare their class performance against the national average on
specific questions or topics. At a glance, professors can see class distribution of grades, time spent, most
difficult problems, most difficult steps and even the most common answer.
Nivaldo Tro is Professor of Chemistry at Westmont College in Santa Barbara, California, where he has been a faculty member since 1990. He received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Stanford University, for work on developing and using optical techniques to study the adsorption and desorption of molecules to and from surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum. He then went on to the University of California at Berkeley, where he did post-doctoral research on ultra-fast reaction dynamics in solution. Since coming to Westmont, Professor Tro has been awarded grants from the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, from Research Corporation, and from the National Science Foundation to study the dynamics of various processes occurring in thin adlayer films adsorbed on dielectric surfaces. He has twice been honored as Westmont's outstanding teacher of the year and has also received the college's outstanding researcher of the year award. Professor Tro lives in Santa Barbara with his wife, Ann, and their four children, Michael, Ali, Kyle, and Kaden. In his leisure time, Professor Tro enjoys reading good literature to his children and being outdoors with his family.