About the Authors.
I. INTRODUCING THE STUDY OF HUMANITY.
1. Anthropology: The Study of Humanity.
Anthropology’s Four Fields.
LESSONS APPLIED: Orangutan Research Leads to Orangutan Advocacy
CROSSING THE FIELDS: What Is Europe?
Ethics, Relevance to the Public, and Careers
2. Culture and Diversity.
The Concept of Culture.
Multiple Cultural Worlds.
LESSONS APPLIED: Historical Archaeology and the Story of the Northern Cheyenne Outbreak of 1879.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Elderly Females Take the Lead in Baboon Societies.
Contemporary Debates about Culture.
CRITICAL THINKING: Adolescent Stress: Biologically Determined or Culturally Constructed?
3. Science, Biology, and Evolution.
Science and the Tree of Life
Evolution Explains the Tree of Life and Humanity’s Place in It.
LESSONS APPLIED: Applying Science to the Ethical Treatment of Nonhuman Primates.
How Evolution Works.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Breeding and Culture in the “Sport of Kings”
METHODS CLOSE-UP: Using DNA Evidence to Reconstruct the Origin of the Indigenous People of the Andaman Islands.
4. Research Methods in Anthropology.
Studying Humanity’s Past
METHODS CLOSE-UP: Studying Egyptian Mummy Tissue for Clues about Ancient Disease.
Studying Contemporary Humanity.
CRITICAL THINKING: Missing Women in the Trobriand Islands.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Visual Anthropology.
II. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION.
5. The Nonhuman Primates.
CRITICAL THINKING: Infanticide in Primates and the Sexual Selection Hypothesis.
Varieties of Primates.
Nonuman Primates: Windows to Humanity’s Past Face a Fragile Future
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Learning about Chimpanzee Tool Use through Archaeology
LESSONS APPLIED: Using Primatology Data for Primate Conservation Programs
6. The Earliest Human Ancestors.
Finding and Interpreting Hominin Fossils
METHODS CLOSE-UP: Reconstructing Whole Fossils from Fragments.
The Early Hominins
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Cultural Variations on the Narrative of Human Origins and Evolution.
CRITICAL THINKING: “Lumpers” and “Splitters.”
Early Hominin Adaptations.
7. Emergence and Evolution of Archaic Homo.
The First Humans.
CRITICAL THINKING: What Is Really in the Toolbox?
Archaic Homo Moves Out of Africa.
LESSONS APPLIED: Anthropologists Advocate for World Heritage Status for Atapuerca, Spain.
Behavioral and Cultural Evolution
CROSSING THE FIELDS: From Kanzi to Olduvai, But Not Quite.
8. Modern Humans: Origins, Migrations, and Transitions.
The Origin of Modern Humans
Modern Humans during the Upper Paleolithic
LESSONS APPLIED: Helping to Resolve Conflicts about Repainting Australian Indigenous Cave Art.
CRITICAL THINKING: Unfair to Neanderthals?
Mesolithic Transitions during the Holocene Era
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Linguistic Anthropology Provides Insights into the Bantu Expansion.
9. The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions.
The Neolithic Revolution and the Beginnings of Settled Life
Civilization: The Urban Revolution, States and Empires
CROSSING THE FIELDS: A Theory from Cultural Anthropology about How Early States Formed.
LESSONS APPLIED: Archaeology's Findings Increase Food Production in Bolivia
CRITICAL THINKING: Kennewick Man and Native American Reburial
Lessons from the Neolithic and Later Times about Our World.
III. CONTEMPORARY HUMAN SOCIAL VARIATION.
10. Contemporary Human Biological Diversity.
Contemporary Human Genetic Variation.
METHODS CLOSE-UP: Ethics in Genetics Diversity Research.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Popular Opinion in Iceland on the National Human Genome Project.
Contemporary Human Physical Variation.
Urban Life’s Challenges to Human Biology and Health.
LESSONS APPLIED: Fruits ‘R’ Us: A Participatory Action Research Project to Improve Nutrition among Young in West Philadelphia
11. Economic Systems.
Modes of Production
CRITICAL THINKING: Was the Invention of Agriculture a Terrible Mistake?
Modes of Consumption and Exchange.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Linking the Gender Division of Labor to Diet and Growth.
LESSONS APPLIED: Evaluating Indian Gaming in California
Globalization and Changing Economies.
12. Reproduction and Human Development.
Modes of Reproduction.
Culture and Fertility.
METHODS CLOSE-UP: Taking Gender into Account When Surveying Sexual Behavior.
Personality and The Life Cycle.
CRITICAL THINKING: Cultural Relativism and Female Genital Cutting.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Menopause, Grandmothering, and Human Evolution.
13. Disease, Illness and Healing.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Linguistic Anthropology and the Medical Interview.
CRITICAL THINKING: Why Do People Eat Dirt?
14. Kinship and Domestic Life.
The Study of Kinship Systems.
CRITICAL THINKING: How Bilineal Is American Kinship?
Households and Domestic Life.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: What Burials Reveal about Household Members’ Status: The Prehistoric Oneota of Wisconsin.
LESSONS APPLIED: Ethnography to Prevent Wife Abuse in Rural Kentucky
Changing Kinship and Household Dynamics.
METHODS CLOSE-UP: Love Letters and Courtship in Nepal
15. Social Groups and Social Stratification.
METHODS CLOSE-UP: Multi-sited Research to Study the Breast Cancer Movement in the San Francisco Bay Area.
CRITICAL THINKING: What’s Missing from This Picture?
CROSSING THE FIELDS: The Role of Archaeology in an African American Cultural Heritage Project.
LESSONS APPLIED: Anthropology and Community Activism in Papua New Guinea.
16. Political and Legal Systems.
Politics, Political Organization, and Leadership.
METHODS CLOSE-UP: Life Histories Provide Clues about Women’s Political Socialization in Korea.
Social Order and Social Conflict.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Postconflict Reconciliation through Making Amends among Nonhuman Primates.
CRITICAL THINKING: The Yanomami: The “Fierce People”?
Change in Political and Legal Systems.
IV. COMMUNICATION AND THE SEARCH FOR MEANING.
The Varieties of Human Communication
LESSONS APPLIED: Anthropology and Public Understanding of the Language and Culture of People Who Are Deaf.
Communication, Cultural Diversity, and Inequality
CRITICAL THINKING: Should Dead and Dying Languages Be Revived?
Religion in Comparative Perspective.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Red Ochre and the Origins of Ritual in Southern Africa.
LESSONS APPLIED: Aboriginal Women’s Culture, Sacred Site Protection, and the Anthropologist as Expert Witness
CRITICAL THINKING: Why Did the Aztecs Practice Human Sacrifice and Cannibalism?
World Religions and Local Variations.
Directions of Religious Change.
19. Expressive Culture.
Art and Culture.
CRITICAL THINKING: Probing the Categories of Art.
Play, Leisure, and Culture.
Change in Expressive Culture.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Applying Cladistic Analysis to Change in Oriental Carpets.
LESSONS APPLIED: A Strategy for the World Bank on Cultural Heritage.
V. FORCES OF CHANGE AND HUMANITY’S FUTURE.
20. People on the Move.
Categories of Migration.
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Health Effects of Migration to the United States
CRITICAL THINKING: Haitian Cane Cutters in the Dominican Republic–A Case of Structure or Human Agency?
The New Immigrants to the United States and Canada
Migration Policies and Programs in a Globalizing World
21. People Defining Development.
Defining Development and Approaches to it.
CRITICAL THINKING: The Green Revolution and Social Inequality.
LESSONS APPLIED: The Saami, Snowmobiles, and the Need for Social Impact Analysis.
Development and Minority Groups: Indigenous People and Women
CROSSING THE FIELDS: Repatriating Saartjse Baartman's Remains to South Africa
Urgent Issues in Development