For Statistics and Research Methods courses using SPSS.
Using SPSS guides students through the most basic of SPSS techniques using step-by-step descriptions, presents statistical techniques and instruction on how to conduct statistical analyses, and explains in detail how to avoid all the obstacles common in the study of statistics.
The development of easy-to-use statistical software like SPSS has changed the way statistics is being taught and learned. Students can make transformations of variables, create graphs of distributions of variables, and select among statistical analyses all at the click of a button. However, even with these advancements, students sometimes still find statistics to be an arduous task. They continue to be faced with many potential obstacles and they might feel overwhelmed and stressed rather than challenged and excited about the potential for mastering these important skills. Samuel Green and Neil Salkind have written a text to specifically address these issues.
Datasets availabale at: www.pearsonhighered.com/salkind/
Part I Introducing SPSS
Unit 1 Getting Started with SPSS
Lesson 1 Starting SPSS
Lesson 2 The SPSS Main Menus and Toolbar
Lesson 3 Using SPSS Help
Lesson 4 A Brief SPSS Tour
Unit 2 Creating and Working with Data Files
Lesson 5 Defining Variables
Lesson 6 Entering and Editing Data
Lesson 7 Inserting and Deleting Cases and Variables
Lesson 8 Selecting, Copying, Cutting, and Pasting Data
Lesson 9 Printing and Exiting an SPSS Data File
Lesson 10 Exporting and Importing SPSS Data
Lesson 11 Validating SPSS Data
Unit 3 Working with Data
Lesson 12 Finding Values, Variables, and Cases
Lesson 13 Recoding Data and Computing Values
Lesson 14 Sorting, Transposing, and Ranking Data
Lesson 15 Splitting and Merging Files
Unit 4A Working with SPSS Charts and Output for Windows
Lesson 16A Creating an SPSS Chart
Lesson 17A Enhancing SPSS Charts
Lesson 18A Using the Viewer and Pivot Tables
Unit 4B Working with SPSS Charts and Output for Macintosh
Lesson 16B Creating an SPSS Chart
Lesson 17B Enhancing SPSS Charts
Lesson 18B Using the Viewer and Pivot Tables
Part II Working with SPSS Procedures
Unit 5 Creating Variables and Computing Descriptive Statistics
Lesson 19 Creating Variables
Lesson 20 Univariate Descriptive Statistics for Qualitative Variables
Lesson 21 Univariate Descriptive Statistics for Quantitative Variables
Unit 6 t Test Procedures
Lesson 22 One-Sample t Test
Lesson 23 Paired-Samples t Test
Lesson 24 Independent-Samples t Test
Unit 7 Univariate and Multivariate
Lesson 25 One-Way Analysis of Variance
Lesson 26 Two-Way Analysis of Variance
Lesson 27 One-Way Analysis of Covariance
Lesson 28 One-Way Multivariate Analysis of Variance
Lesson 29 One-Way Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance
Lesson 30 Two-Way Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance
Unit 8 Correlation, Regression, and Discriminant Analysis Procedures
Lesson 31 Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
Lesson 32 Partial Correlations
Lesson 33 Bivariate Linear Regression
Lesson 34 Multiple Linear Regression
Lesson 35 Discriminant Analysis
Unit 9 Scaling Procedures
Lesson 36 Factor Analysis
Lesson 37 Internal Consistency Estimates of Reliability
Lesson 38 Item Analysis Using the Reliability Procedure
Unit 10 Nonparametric Procedures
Lesson 39 Binomial Test
Lesson 40 One-Sample Chi-Square Test
Lesson 41 Two-Way Contingency Table Analysis Using Crosstabs
Lesson 42 Two Independent-Samples Test: The Mann-Whitney U Test
Lesson 43 K Independent-Samples Tests: The Kruskal-Wallis and the Median Tests
Lesson 44 Two Related-Samples Tests: The McNemar, the Sign, and the Wilcoxon Tests
Lesson 45 K Related-Samples Tests: The Friedman and the Cochran Tests
Appendix A Data for Crab Scale and Teacher Scale
Appendix B Methods for Controlling Type I Error across Multiple Hypothesis Tests
Appendix C Selected Answers to Lesson Exercises
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What kind of obstacles do your students find when using SPSS for the first time?
1. Possible obstacles: They have to learn how to input data into the Data Editor, save and retrieve data, make transformations to data, conduct analyses, manipulate output, create graphs, edit graphs, etc.
Part I consists of seventeen lessons divided into four units. Each unit guides students through the most basic of SPSS techniques and uses a step-by-step description.
o Unit 1, “Getting Started with SPSS,” shows the student how to get started using SPSS, including a survey of the main menus, a description of how to use SPSS Help, and a brief tour of what SPSS can do.
o Unit 2, “Creating and Working with Data Files,” goes through the steps of defining variables, showing how data are entered and edited, how to use the data editor and the data view screens, how to print SPSS data files, and how to import and export information to and from SPSS.
o Unit 3, “Working with Data,” describes how to find and replace data, recode and compute values, sort data, and merge and split files.
o Unit 4, the final unit in Part I, titled “Working with SPSS Charts and Output,” teaches the student how to create and enhance SPSS charts as well as how to work with SPSS output including pivot tables. SPSS Windows (version 15) and Macintosh (version 13) differ in the way that graphics are created and edited, and, thus, there is a separate section covering each, Unit 4A for Windows and Unit 4B for the Macintosh. SPSS is becoming increasingly cross-platform and if you know the Windows version, you can easily adapt to the Macintosh version (and vice versa).
2. Possible obstacles: Students can feel helpless. Although they can point and click, they are frequently confronted with new dialogue boxes with many decisions to make. The amount of output and numbers produced by any statistical procedure is overwhelming and difficult to interpret.
Part II “Working with SPSS Procedures” consists of twenty-seven lessons, divided into six units. Each unit presents a set of statistical techniques and a step-by-step description of how to conduct the statistical analyses.
Not written in a "cookbook" format. The authors provide extensive substantive information and extensive examples about using each statistical technique, including:
o A brief discussion of the statistical technique under consideration.
o Examples of how the statistic is applied.
o The assumptions underlying the statistic.
o A description of the effect size for the statistic.
o A sample data set that can be analyzed with the statistic.
o The research question associated with the data set.
o Step-by-step instructions for how to complete the analysis using the sample data set.
o A discussion of the results of the analysis.
o A visual display of the results using SPSS graphic options.
o A results section describing the results in APA format.
o Alternative analytical techniques (when available).
o Practice exercises.
· Unit details of Part II include:
o Unit 5, “Creating Variables and Computing Descriptive Statistics,” shows how to create new variables from existing ones and shows the basic procedures for describing qualitative and quantitative variables.
o Unit 6, “t Test Procedures,” focuses on comparing means and shows how to use a variety of techniques, including independent and dependent t tests and the one-sample t test.
o Unit 7, “Univariate and Multivariate Analysis-of-Variance Techniques,” focuses on the family of analysis-of-variance techniques, including one-way and two-way analyses of variance, analysis of covariance, and multivariate analysis of variance.
o Unit 8, “Correlation, Regression, and Discriminant Analysis Procedures,” includes simple techniques such as bivariate correlational analysis and bivariate regression analysis, as well as more complex analyses such as partial correlational analysis, multiple linear regression, and discriminant analysis.
o Unit 9, “Scaling Procedures,” focuses on factor analysis, reliability estimation, and item analysis.
o Unit 10, “Nonparametric Procedures,” discusses a variety of nonparametric techniques, including such tests as the binomial, one-sample chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, McNemar, Friedman, and Cochran tests.
How do you keep your students engaged with their text?
After This Lesson You Will Know. In Part I, at the beginning of each lesson, students will see a list of objectives–skills that they will master when they successfully complete the content of the lesson and work through all of the exercises in the lesson. These advanced objectives indicate what you can expect, and what is expected of you.
Key Words. Also in Part I, at the beginning of each lesson, there is a listing of key words that will be introduced and defined for the first time in the lesson. These words will be in boldface type the first time they are used.
Typing Conventions. There is only one typing convention students must attend to throughout this book. A sequence of actions is represented by what options are selected from what menu, connected by an arrow.
§ 1. Click File --> New.
Examples. Each lesson includes step-by-step procedures, with copious illustrations of screen shots, for successfully completing a technique with sample data. Exercises at the end of each lesson allow students to practice what you have learned.
Tips. Some of the lessons contain tips (in the margins) that will help you learn SPSS and will teach you short cuts that make SPSS easier to use.
Neil J. Salkind is a professor emeritus of educational psychology at the University of Kansas where he taught for 35 years. He received his degree from the University of Maryland's Institute for Child Study and has published numerous journal articles and books, among them being Using SPSS with Sam Green (Prentice Hall), Exploring Research (Prentice Hall) and Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics (Sage). He is active in the Society for Research in Child Development where he edited the journal Child Development Abstracts & Bibliography, and the American Psychological Association. He lives in Lawrence, KS.