# Electric Circuits: International Edition (9e)

James W. Nilsson
Susan Riedel
Title Electric Circuits: International Edition
Edition 9th
ISBN 9780137050512
ISBN 10 0137050518
Published 08/04/2010
Pages 816
Format Paperback
In stock

Total Price \$139.95 Add to Cart
##### Description

Designed for use in a one or two-semester Introductory Circuit Analysis or Circuit Theory Course taught in Electrical or Computer Engineering Departments.

Electric Circuits 9/e is the most widely used introductory circuits textbook of the past 25 years. As this book has evolved over the years to meet the changing learning styles of students, importantly, the underlying teaching approaches and philosophies remain unchanged. The goals are:

- To build an understanding of concepts and ideas explicitly in terms of previous learning

- To emphasize the relationship between conceptual understanding and problem solving approaches

- To provide students with a strong foundation of engineering practices.

List of Examples xiii

Preface xvii

Chapter 1 Circuit Variables 2

Practical Perspective: Balancing Power 3

1.1 Electrical Engineering: An Overview 4

1.2 The International System of Units 8

1.3 Circuit Analysis: An Overview 10

1.4 Voltage and Current 11

1.5 The Ideal Basic Circuit Element 12

1.6 Power and Energy 14

Practical Perspective: Balancing Power 17

Summary 18

Problems 19

Chapter 2 Circuit Elements 24

Practical Perspective: Electrical Safety 25

2.1 Voltage and Current Sources 26

2.2 Electrical Resistance (Ohm’s Law) 30

2.3 Construction of a Circuit Model 34

2.4 Kirchhoff’s Laws 37

2.5 Analysis of a Circuit Containing Dependent Sources 42

Practical Perspective: Electrical Safety 46

Summary 47

Problems 48

Chapter 3 Simple Resistive Circuits 56

Practical Perspective: A Rear Window Defroster 57

3.1 Resistors in Series 58

3.2 Resistors in Parallel 59

3.3 The Voltage-Divider and Current-DividerCircuits 61

3.4 Voltage Division and Current Division 64

3.5 Measuring Voltage and Current 66

3.6 Measuring Resistance—The Wheatstone Bridge 69

3.7 Delta-to-Wye (Pi-to-Tee) Equivalent Circuits 71

Practical Perspective: A Rear Window Defroster 73

Summary 76

Problems 77

Chapter 4 Techniques of Circuit Analysis 88

Practical Perspective: Circuits with Realistic Resistors 89

4.1 Terminology 90

4.2 Introduction to the Node-Voltage Method 93

4.3 The Node-Voltage Method and Dependent Sources 95

4.4 The Node-Voltage Method: Some Special Cases 96

4.5 Introduction to the Mesh-Current Method 99

4.6 The Mesh-Current Method and Dependent Sources 102

4.7 The Mesh-Current Method: Some Special Cases 103

4.8 The Node-Voltage Method Versus the Mesh-Current Method 106

4.9 Source Transformations 109

4.10 Thévenin and Norton Equivalents 113

4.11 More on Deriving a Thévenin Equivalent 117

4.12 Maximum Power Transfer 120

4.13 Superposition 122

Practical Perspective: Circuits with Realistic Resistors 125

Summary 129

Problems 130

Chapter 5 The Operational Amplifier 144

Practical Perspective: Strain Gages 145

5.1 Operational Amplifier Terminals 146

5.2 Terminal Voltages and Currents 146

5.3 The Inverting-Amplifier Circuit 150

5.4 The Summing-Amplifier Circuit 152

5.5 The Noninverting-Amplifier Circuit 153

5.6 The Difference-Amplifier Circuit 155

5.7 A More Realistic Model for the Operational Amplifier 159

Practical Perspective: Strain Gages 162

Summary 164

Problems 165

Chapter 6 Inductance, Capacitance, and Mutual Inductance 174

Practical Perspective: Proximity Switches 175

6.1 The Inductor 176

6.2 The Capacitor 182

6.3 Series-Parallel Combinations of Inductance and Capacitance 187

6.4 Mutual Inductance 189

6.5 A Closer Look at Mutual Inductance 193

Practical Perspective: Proximity Switches 200

Summary 203

Problems 204

Chapter 7 Response of First-Order RL and RC Circuits 212

Practical Perspective: A Flashing Light Circuit 213

7.1 The Natural Response of an RL Circuit 214

7.2 The Natural Response of an RC Circuit 220

7.3 The Step Response of RL and RC Circuits 224

7.4 A General Solution for Step and Natural Responses 231

7.5 Sequential Switching 236

7.6 Unbounded Response 240

7.7 The Integrating Amplifier 241

Practical Perspective: A Flashing Light Circuit 245

Summary 246

Problems 247

Chapter 8 Natural and Step Responses of RLC Circuits 264

Practical Perspective: An Ignition Circuit 265

8.1 Introduction to the Natural Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit 266

8.2 The Forms of the Natural Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit 270

8.3 The Step Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit 280

8.4 The Natural and Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit 285

8.5 A Circuit with Two Integrating Amplifiers 289

Practical Perspective: An Ignition Circuit 294

Summary 297

Problems 298

Chapter 9 Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis 306

Practical Perspective: A Household Distribution Circuit 307

9.1 The Sinusoidal Source 308

9.2 The Sinusoidal Response 311

9.3 The Phasor 312

9.4 The Passive Circuit Elements in the Frequency Domain 317

9.5 Kirchhoff’s Laws in the Frequency Domain 321

9.6 Series, Parallel, and Delta-to-Wye Simplifications 322

9.7 Source Transformations and Thévenin-Norton Equivalent Circuits 329

9.8 The Node-Voltage Method 332

9.9 The Mesh-Current Method 333

9.10 The Transformer 334

9.11 The Ideal Transformer 338

9.12 Phasor Diagrams 344

Practical Perspective: A Household Distribution Circuit 346

Summary 347

Problems 348

Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Steady-State Power Calculations 360

Practical Perspective: Heating Appliances 361

10.1 Instantaneous Power 362

10.2 Average and Reactive Power 363

10.3 The rms Value and Power Calculations 368

10.4 Complex Power 370

10.5 Power Calculations 371

10.6 Maximum Power Transfer 378

Practical Perspective: Heating Appliances 384

Summary 386

Problems 387

Chapter 11 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 398

Practical Perspective: Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power 399

11.1 Balanced Three-Phase Voltages 400

11.2 Three-Phase Voltage Sources 401

11.3 Analysis of the Wye-Wye Circuit 402

11.4 Analysis of the Wye-Delta Circuit 407

11.5 Power Calculations in Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 410

11.6 Measuring Average Power in Three-Phase Circuits 415

Practical Perspective: Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power 418

Summary 419

Problems 420

Chapter 12 Introduction to the Laplace Transform 428

Practical Perspective: Transient Effects 429

12.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform 430

12.2 The Step Function 431

12.3 The Impulse Function 433

12.4 Functional Transforms 436

12.5 Operational Transforms 437

12.6 Applying the Laplace Transform 442

12.7 Inverse Transforms 444

12.8 Poles and Zeros of F(s) 454

12.9 Initial- and Final-Value Theorems 455

Practical Perspective: Transient Effects 458

Summary 459

Problems 460

Chapter 13 The Laplace Transform in Circuit Analysis 466

Practical Perspective: Surge Suppressors 467

13.1 Circuit Elements in the s Domain 468

13.2 Circuit Analysis in the s Domain 470

13.3 Applications 472

13.4 The Transfer Function 484

13.5 The Transfer Function in Partial Fraction Expansions 486

13.6 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral 489

13.7 The Transfer Function and the Steady-State Sinusoidal Response 495

13.8 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis 498

Practical Perspective: Surge Suppressors 505

Summary 506

Problems 507

Chapter 14 Introduction to Frequency Selective Circuits 522

Practical Perspective: Pushbutton Telephone Circuits 523

14.1 Some Preliminaries 524

14.2 Low-Pass Filters 526

14.3 High-Pass Filters 532

14.4 Bandpass Filters 536

14.5 Bandreject Filters 545

Practical Perspective: Pushbutton Telephone Circuits 550

Summary 550

Problems 551

Chapter 15 Active Filter Circuits 558

Practical Perspective: Bass Volume Control 559

15.1 First-Order Low-Pass and High-Pass Filters 560

15.2 Scaling 564

15.3 Op Amp Bandpass and Bandreject Filters 566

15.4 Higher Order Op Amp Filters 573

15.5 Narrowband Bandpass and Bandreject Filters 586

Practical Perspective: Bass Volume Control 591

Summary 594

Problems 595

Chapter 16 Fourier Series 604

Practical Perspective: Active High-Q Filters 605

16.1 Fourier Series Analysis: An Overview 607

16.2 The Fourier Coefficients 608

16.3 The Effect of Symmetry on the Fourier Coefficients 611

16.4 An Alternative Trigonometric Form of the Fourier Series 617

16.5 An Application 619

16.6 Average-Power Calculations with Periodic Functions 623

16.7 The rms Value of a Periodic Function 626

16.8 The Exponential Form of the Fourier Series 627

16.9 Amplitude and Phase Spectra 630

Practical Perspective: Active High-Q Filters 632

Summary 634

Problems 635

Chapter 17 The Fourier Transform 644

Practical Perspective: Filtering Digital Signals 645

17.1 The Derivation of the Fourier Transform 646

17.2 The Convergence of the Fourier Integral 648

17.3 Using Laplace Transforms to Find Fourier Transforms 650

17.4 Fourier Transforms in the Limit 653

17.5 Some Mathematical Properties 655

17.6 Operational Transforms 657

17.7 Circuit Applications 661

17.8 Parseval’s Theorem 664

Practical Perspective: Filtering Digital Signals 671

Summary 672

Problems 672

Chapter 18 Two-Port Circuits 678

Practical Perspective: Characterizing an Unknown Circuit 679

18.1 The Terminal Equations 680

18.2 The Two-Port Parameters 681

18.3 Analysis of the Terminated Two-Port Circuit 689

18.4 Interconnected Two-Port Circuits 694

Practical Perspective: Characterizing an Unknown Circuit 697

Summary 698

Problems 698

Appendix A The Solution of Linear Simultaneous Equations 705

A.1 Preliminary Steps 705

A.2 Cramer’s Method 706

A.3 The Characteristic Determinant 706

A.4 The Numerator Determinant 706

A.5 The Evaluation of a Determinant 707

A.6 Matrices 709

A.7 Matrix Algebra 710

A.8 Identity, Adjoint, and Inverse Matrices 714

A.9 Partitioned Matrices 717

A.10 Applications 720

Appendix B Complex Numbers 725

B.1 Notation 725

B.2 The Graphical Representation of a Complex Number 726

B.3 Arithmetic Operations 727

B.4 Useful Identities 728

B.5 The Integer Power of a Complex Number 729

B.6 The Roots of a Complex Number 729

Appendix C More on Magnetically Coupled Coils and Ideal Transformers 731

C.1 Equivalent Circuits for Magnetically Coupled Coils 731

C.2 The Need for Ideal Transformers in the Equivalent Circuits 735

Appendix D The Decibel 739

Appendix E Bode Diagrams 741

E.1 Real, First-Order Poles and Zeros 741

E.2 Straight-Line Amplitude Plots 742

E.3 More Accurate Amplitude Plots 746

E.4 Straight-Line Phase Angle Plots 747

E.5 Bode Diagrams: Complex Poles and Zeros 749

E.6 Amplitude Plots 751

E.7 Correcting Straight-Line Amplitude Plots 752

E.8 Phase Angle Plots 755

Appendix F An Abbreviated Table of Trigonometric Identities 759

Appendix G An Abbreviated Table of Integrals 761

Appendix H Common Standard Component Values 763

Index 781

##### New to this edition

The ninth edition revision of Electric Circuits began with a thorough review of the text by instructors who currently use Electric Circuits and those who use other texts. This review provided a clear picture of what matters most to instructors and their students and led to the following changes:

• Problem solving is fundamental to the study of circuit analysis. Having a wealth of new problems to assign and work is a key to success in any circuits course. Therefore, existing end-of-chapter problems were revised, and new end-of-chapter problems were added. The result is a text with approximately 75% new or revised problems compared to the previous edition.

• Both students and instructors want to know how the generalized techniques presented in a first-year circuit analysis course relate to problems faced by practicing engineers. The Practical Perspective problems provide this connection between circuit analysis and the real world. We have expanded the use of the Practical Perspectives so that they now appear at the start of every chapter. This problem is solved, at least in part, at the end of the chapter, and additional end-of-chapter problems can be assigned to allow students to explore the Practical Perspective topic further.

• Examples embedded in the text that illustrate the application of concepts just presented are an important tool to improve student understanding. The ninth edition adds new examples and now all chapters except Chapter 12 have a minimum of four examples. Chapter 12, which presents an introduction to Laplace transform techniques, is comprised of a collection of examples, but does not follow the format of concept-example employed by the other chapters.

• Previous editions of Electric Circuits contained many end-of-chapter problems with circuits constructed from components with standard values. These circuits could actually be constructed and tested in a laboratory. New to the ninth edition is Appendix H, which lists standard values for resistors, inductors, and capacitors. Also new are end-of-chapter problems for most chapters that ask students to use components from Appendix H to construct circuits that meet particular requirements. The use of standard components is another effort to tie circuit analysis concepts to real-world circuits.

• Previous editions of Electric Circuits have been published with an optional separate paperback manual presenting an introduction to PSpice and its use in simulating circuits a student encounters in their study of linear circuits With the ninth edition, students and instructors can choose from two circuit-simulation manuals–PSpice, or MultiSim. Each manual presents the simulation material in the same order as the material is presented in the text. These manuals continue to include examples of circuits to be simulated that are drawn directly from the text. The text continues to indicate end-of-chapter problems that are good candidates for simulation using either PSpice or MultiSim.

• Students who could benefit from additional examples and practice problems can use the Student Workbook. This workbook has examples and problems covering the following material: balancing power, simple resistive circuits, node voltage method, mesh current method, Thévenin and Norton equivalents, op amp circuits, first-order circuits, second-order circuits, AC steady-state analysis, and Laplace transform circuit analysis.

• Instructors and students benefit greatly from thoughtful methods of assessing student learning. The ninth edition makes PowerPoint presentations available to instructors that include embedded assessment questions. During a lecture, the instructor can present material using PowerPoint, pose a question to the students concerning that material, and allow students to respond to the question. Results from student responses are immediately available to the instructor, providing real time information about the students’ comprehension of the material. This immediate feedback allows the instructor go back and revisit material the students did not comprehend, or to continue presenting new material if comprehension is satisfactory.

• Every new copy of the book now comes with access to Video Solutions and a Pearson eText. Video solutions are complete, step-by-step solution walkthroughs of representative homework problems. The Pearson etext is a complete on-line version of the book that includes highlighting, note-taking and search capabilities.

##### Features & benefits

Chapter Problems

Users of Electric Circuits have consistently rated the Chapter Problems as one of the book’s most attractive features. In the ninth edition, there are over 1300 problems with approximately 75% that are new or revised from the previous edition. Problems are organized at the end of each chapter by section.

Practical Perspectives

The ninth edition continues the use of Practical Perspective introduced with the chapter openers. They offer examples of real-world circuits, taken from real-world devices. Every chapter begins with a brief description of a practical application of the material that follows. Once the chapter material is presented, the chapter concludes with a quantitative analysis of the Practical Perspective application. A group of end-of-chapter problems directly relates to the Practical Perspective application. Solving some of these problems enables you to understand how to apply the chapter contents to the solution of a real-world problem.

Assessment Problems

Each chapter begins with a set of chapter objectives. At key points in the chapter, you are asked to stop and assess your mastery of a particular objective by solving one or more assessment problems. The answers to all of the assessment problems are given at the conclusion of each problem, so you can check your work. If you are able to solve the assessment problems for a given objective, you have mastered that objective. If you need more practice, several end-of-chapter problems that relate to the objective are suggested at the conclusion of the assessment problems.

Examples

Every chapter includes many examples that illustrate the concepts presented in the text in the form of a numeric example. There are nearly 150 examples in this text. The examples are intended to illustrate the application of a particular concept, and also to encourage good problem-solving skills.

Fundamental Equations and Concepts

Throughout the text, you will see fundamental equations and concepts set apart from the main text.This is done to help you focus on some of the key principles in electric circuits and to help you navigate through the important topics.

Integration of Computer Tools

Computer tools can assist students in the learning process by providing a visual representation of a circuit’s behavior, validating a calculated solution, reducing the computational burden of more complex circuits, and iterating toward a desired solution using parameter variation.This computational support is often invaluable in the design process.The ninth edition includes the support of PSpice® and MultiSim®, both popular computer tools for circuit simulation and analysis. Chapter problems suited for exploration with PSpice and MultiSim are marked accordingly.

##### Author biography

Professor JAMES W NILSSON taught at Iowa State University for 39 years. Since retiring from Iowa State, he has been a visiting professor at Notre Dame, California Polytechnic at San Luis Obispo, and the United States Air Force Academy. In 1962, he co-authored (with R.G. Brown) Introduction to Linear Systems Analysis (John Wiley & Sons). In 1968, he authored Introduction to Circuits, Instruments, and Electronics (Harcourt Brae and World). Professor Nilsson received a Standard Oil Outstanding Teacher Award in 1968, the IEEE Undergraduate Teaching Award in 1992, and the McGraw-Hill Jacob Millman Award in 1995. In 1990, he was elected to the rank of Fellow in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Professor SUSAN A. RIEDEL has been a member of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Marquette University since 1981. She also holds a clinical research appointment in the Department of Orthopaedics at the Medical College of Wisconsin and was a visiting professor in the Bioengineering Unit at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, as a Fulbright Scholar during the 1989-90 academic year. She has received two awards for teaching excellence at Marquette, and was recognized for her research contributions with an award from the Chicago Unit of the Shriner's Hospitals.