A best-selling, topically organized child development text, Berk’s Child Development is relied on in classrooms worldwide for its clear, engaging writing style, exceptional cross-cultural and multi-cultural focus, rich examples, and long-standing commitment to presenting the most up-to-date scholarship while also offering students research-based, practical applications that they can relate to their personal and professional lives.
Berk takes an integrated approach to presenting development in the physical, cognitive, emotional, and social domains; emphasizes the complex interchanges between heredity and environment; and provides exceptional attention to culture.
Laura Berk, renowned professor and researcher, presents the latest theories and findings in the field to students in a manageable and relevant way. Berk’s signature storytelling style invites students to actively learn beside the text’s “characters,” who experience real issues in development, including physical, cognitive, and peer challenges, as well as parenting and educational concerns. Berk also helps students connect their learning to their personal and professional areas of interest. Her voice comes through when speaking directly about issues students will face in their future pursuits as parents, educators, heath care providers, social workers, and researchers. As members of a global and diverse human community, students are called on to intelligently approach the responsibility of understanding and responding to the needs and concerns of children.
While carefully considering the complexities of child development, Berk presents classic and emerging theories in an especially clear, engaging writing style, with a multitude of research-based, real-world, and cross-cultural examples. Strengthening the connections among developmental domains and among theory, research, and applications, this edition's extensive revision brings forth the most recent scholarship, representing the changing field of child development.
Table of contents
Part I: Theory and Research in Child Development
1 History, Theory, and Applied Directions
The Field of Child Development
Recent Theoretical Perspectives
Comparing Child Development Theories
Applied Directions: Child Development and Social Policy
2 Research Strategies
From Theory to Hypothesis
Common Research Methods
Reliability and Validity: Keys to Scientifically Sound Research
General Research Designs
Designs for Studying Development
Part II: Foundations of Development
3 Biological Foundations, Prenatal Development, and Birth
Prenatal Environmental Influences
Approaches to Childbirth
Heredity, Environment, and Behavior: A Look Ahead
4 Infancy: Early Learning, Motor Skills, and Perceptual Capacities
The Organized Newborn
Motor Development in Infancy
Perceptual Development in Infancy
Early Deprivation and Enrichment: Is Infancy a Sensitive Period of Development?
5 Physical Growth
The Course of Physical Growth
Factors Affecting Physical Growth
Puberty: The Physical Transition to Adulthood
The Psychological Impact of Pubertal Events
Puberty and Adolescent Health
Part III: Cognitive and Language Development
6 Cognitive Development: Piagetian, Core Knowledge, and Vygotskian Perspectives
Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory
The Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to 2 Years
The Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7 Years
The Concrete Operational Stage: 7 to 11 Years
The Formal Operational Stage: 11 Years and Older
Piaget and Education
The Core Knowledge Perspective
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Vygotsky and Education
Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Theory
7 Cognitive Development: An Information-Processing Perspective
The Information-Processing Approach
General Models of Information Processing
Developmental Theories of Information Processing
Applications of Information Processing to Academic Learning
Evaluation of the Information-Processing Approach
Definitions of Intelligence
Recent Advances in Defining Intelligence
What Do Intelligence Tests Predict, and How Well?
Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in IQ
Explaining Individual and Group Differences in IQ
Early Intervention and Intellectual Development
Giftedness: Creativity and Talent
9 Language Development
Components of Language
Theories of Language Development
Prelinguistic Development: Getting Ready to Talk
Development of Metalinguistic Awareness
Bilingualism: Learning Two Languages in Childhood
Part IV: Personality and Social Development
10 Emotional Development
Functions of Emotions
Development of Emotional Expression
Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others
Temperament and Development
Development of Attachment
Attachment, Parental Employment, and Child Care
11 Self and Social Understanding
Emergence of Self and Development of Self-Concept
Self-Esteem: The Evaluative Side of Self-Concept
Constructing an Identity: Who Should I Become?
Thinking About Other People
Understanding Conflict: Social Problem Solving
12 Moral Development
Morality as Rooted in Human Nature
Morality as the Adoption of Societal Norms
Morality as Social Understanding
Development of Morally Relevant Self-Control
The Other Side of Self-Control: Development of Aggression
13 Development of Sex Differences and Gender Roles
Gender Stereotypes and Gender Roles
Influences on Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Role Adoption
To What Extent Do Boys and Girls Really Differ in Gender-Stereotyped Attributes?
Developing Non-Gender-Stereotyped Children
Part V: Contexts for Development
14 The Family
Origins and Functions of the Family
The Family as a Social System
Socialization Within the Family
Family Lifestyles and Transitions
Vulnerable Families: Child Maltreatment
15 Peers, Media, and Schooling
New to this edition
Now, this Ninth Edition builds on its long and successful history with the most cutting-edge research, pedagogy, and supplements package available! It retains all the hallmark features for which Laura Berk’s texts are known and offers a wealth of exciting new features, including:
New and revised information that reflects major changes and discoveries in the field.
Over 1,400 new reference citations.
New Learning Objectives that appear at the start of their corresponding sections to guide students in their reading.
New Look and Listen active-learning feature that asks students to observe what real children say and do, speak with or observe parents and teachers, and inquire into community programs and practices that influence children.
New Social Issues: Education boxes that focus on home, school and community influences on children’s learning.
New Social Issues: Health boxes that address values and practices relevant to children’s physical and mental health.
New Video-enhanced PowerPoint Presentations for instructors.
New videos in “Explorations in Child Development” DVD, including Preterm Birth, Autism, First-Grade Science Education, Childhood Obesity, Civic Engagement in Adolescence, and Changing Parent-Adolescent Relationships.
Introduction to the concept of plasticity within section on basic issues of development
Revised and updated section on developmental cognitive neuroscience as a new area of investigation
New Social Issues box on how family chaos undermines children’s well-being, illustrating the power of the exosystem to affect development
Expanded and updated section on child development and social policy
Updated Social Issues box on the impact of welfare reform on children’s development, with U.S. welfare reform policies compared to those of other Western nations
Special attention throughout to the advantages of combining research methods and designs
New examples of research using systematic observation, structured interviews, correlational design, field experimentation, and microgenetic design
Expanded and updated section on neurobiological methods, with special attention to major methods of assessing brain functioning
Updated Biology and Environment box on Prenatal iron deficiency and memory impairments in infants of diabetic mothers, illustrating research using event-related potentials (ERPs) as a measure of brain functioning
Updated Cultural Influences box on immigrant youths
Enhanced attention to fetal brain development and behavior
Expanded and updated consideration of a wide range of teratogens
New evidence on the long-term consequences of emotional stress during pregnancy
Introduction to the concept of gene–environment interaction, with illustrative new research findings
Expanded section on epigenesis, including new examples of environmental influences on gene expression
New research on contributions of sleep to infant learning and memory
New dynamic systems research on development of walking and reaching
Updated evidence on how environmental factors, including caregiving practices and the baby’s physical surroundings, contribute to development of motor skills
Enhanced attention to cultural influences—including infant sleep, gross- and fine-motor development, and perceptual development
Expanded and updated research on intermodal perception, including its contributions to all aspects of psychological development
Updated Social Issues box on sex differences in gross motor development, including the role of physical education in school
New section on adolescent brain development, focusing on the imbalance between the cognitive control network and the social/emotional network
Revised and updated section on overweight and obesity, including coverage of contributing factors and health and psychological consequences
New evidence on key elements of effective sex education programs, including recent evaluations of U.S. abstinence education
Updated research on contextual factors affecting long-term adjustment of adolescent parents and their children
Revised and updated section on infant and toddler imitation, revealing toddlers’ ability to infer others’ intentions
New section on symbolic understanding, including toddlers’ developing grasp of words and pictures as symbolic tools
New Social Issues: Education box on baby learning from TV and video, including the video deficit effect and the negative impact of extensive, early TV viewing
Enhanced discussion of school-age children’s spatial reasoning, with special attention to map skills
Expanded and updated research on adolescent decision making
Enhanced and updated consideration of working memory, its assessment, and its implications for learning and academic achievement
New section on executive function and its component processes
New Social Issues: Education box on the impact of “media multitasking” on learning
Revised and enhanced attention to development of episodic memory, including the relationship between semantic and episodic memory
Enhanced discussion of differences between preschoolers from middle-income and low-income families in emergent literacy and math knowledge, including interventions that reduce the gap
Updated Social Issues: Education box on emotional intelligence
New findings on IQ as a predictor of psychological adjustment
New evidence on how culturally acquired knowledge affects reasoning on mental test items
Enhanced Social Issues: Education box on high-stakes testing, including the impact of the U.S. No Child Left Behind Act on quality of American education
Enhanced consideration of the potential for supplementary programs to strengthen the impact of Head Start and other preschool programs serving low-income children
Updated research on categorical speech perception in humans and other animals
New evidence on contributions of joint attention and preverbal gestures to early language development
New findings on how phonological features of the native language influence early vocabulary growth
Enhanced consideration of research on young children’s grammatical knowledge, including the influence of native-language syntactic forms
Enhanced attention to effects of bilingual education on academic achievement and long-term educational and occupational attainment
Updated evidence on contributions of language development and parenting to preschoolers’ emotional self-regulation
New research on consequences of effortful control—the self-regulatory dimension of temperament—for cognitive, emotional, and social development
Updated evidence on contextual factors that contribute to changes in attachment pattern over time
New evidence on contributions of fathers’ play to attachment security and emotional and social adjustment
New section on grandparents as primary caregivers and attachment
Updated evidence on the school-age child’s theory of mind, including development of recursive thought
New evidence on preschoolers’ self-concepts, including their emerging grasp of personality traits
New Research on personal and social factors contributing to identity development in adolescence
Updated Social Issues: Health box on adolescent suicide
Enhanced section on children’s understanding of social groups, development of racial and ethnic prejudice, and strategies for reducing prejudice
New evidence on the relationship of early corporal punishment to later behavior problems, including cross-cultural findings
Updated research on cultural variations in children’s moral judgments of truthfulness and lying
Enhanced consideration of factors that promote moral identity, along with its relationship to moral commitment
New findings on social-cognitive deficits and distortions of aggressive children
New section on parent training programs to reduce child conduct problems, with special attention to Incredible Years
New evidence on parents’ differential expectations for boys’ and girls’ academic achievement
Updated findings on teachers’ differential treatment of boys and girls
New Social Issues: Education box on teaching children to challenge peers’ sexist remarks
Updated consideration of factors contributing to sex differences in verbal, mathematical, and spatial abilities
Updated research on sex differences in adolescent depression
New research on the long-term, favorable consequences of authoritative child rearing
Updated section on parenting and adolescent autonomy, including research on immigrant families
New findings on sibling relationships, including cultural influences and interventions to reduce sibling animosity
New research on gay and lesbian families, including children’s adjustment and gender identity
Expanded attention to the role of fathers in children’s development, with special attention to the transition to parenthood, blended families, and dual-career families
New findings on the role of positive peer relations in school readiness
New research on characteristics of adolescent friendships, including implications of other-sex friends for adjustment
Updated Biology and Environment box on bullies and their victims, including bullies high in social prominence and power and school-context effects on bullying
Updated evidence on the influence of various media activities, including TV, video games, texting, and social networking sites, on development and adjustment
New research on the educational consequences of widespread SES and ethnic segregation in American schools
New Social Issues: Education box on magnet schools as a means of attaining equal access to high-quality education
Features & benefits
9 reasons why the ninth edition of Laura Berk’s Child Development continues to be the cutting-edge standard for child development texts:
1. Thoroughly Engaging Writing Style
Laura Berk makes the study of child development both involving and pleasurable for students. Child Development is written in an engaging, personal style -- one that is highly accessible -- and contains real-life human-interest stories. The author encourages students to relate what they read to their own lives.
2. Appealing and Meaningful Applications
Child Development’s practical applications show students how their learning relates to real-world situations. Applications are relevant to students pursuing a variety of fields, including psychology, education, health sciences, sociology, anthropology, family studies, social services, and health sciences.
3. Exceptional Integration of Culture and Diversity
Multicultural and cross-cultural material is presented not only in the text’s research and in many positive and diverse examples, but also through rich photos, figures, and children’s art, which enhance student interest and understanding.
4. Unparalleled Breadth and Depth of Research
Child Development is well known for its up-to-date and comprehensive research coverage, presented with clarity and ease, making the study of child development current, relevant, and enjoyable for students.
5. New and Enhanced Material in Each Chapter
Added and revised material reflects major changes and discoveries in the field. This edition includes over 1,400 new reference citations.
6. Beautiful Artwork, Graphics, and Photographs
Visually stunning, the art, graphics, and photos effectively illustrate major points and enhance student interest and understanding.
7. Outstanding Pedagogical Features
Exceptional pedagogical features support students’ mastery of the material.
Chapter Introductions, Learning Objectives, and End-of-Chapter Summaries
Each chapter begins with an outline and an engaging real-life story.
NEW Learning objectives appear at the start of their corresponding sections to guide students in their reading.
Chapter summaries are organized by learning objective, encouraging active study. They also include bolded key terms, which help students acquire and master the vocabulary of the field.
Take a Moment . . .
Built into the text narrative, this feature engages students by asking them to “take a moment” to think about an important point, integrate information on children’s development, or engage in an exercise or an application to clarify a challenging concept.
Look and Listen
This NEW active-learning feature asks students to observe what real children say and do, speak with or observe parents and teachers, and inquire into community programs and practices that influence children.
Ask Yourself Questions
These questions build on one another and engage students by asking them to Review what they have read, Connect what they have read to build an image of the whole child, Apply the material to controversial issues, and then Reflect on their own development and life experiences.
Review questions help students recall and comprehend information they have just read.
Connect questions help students build an image of the whole child by integrating what they have learned across age periods and domains of development.
Apply questions encourage the application of knowledge to controversial issues and problems faced by children, parents, and professionals who work with them.
Reflect questions help make the study of child development personally meaningful by asking students to reflect on their own development and life experiences. Each question is answered on the text’s MyDevelopmentLab website.
Social Issues boxes discuss the impact of social conditions on children and emphasize the need for sensitive social policies to ensure their well-being:
NEW! Social Issues: Education boxes focus on home, school, and community influences on children’s learning. Examples include Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit Effect; Media Multitasking Disrupts Attention and Learning; The Head Start REDI Program: Strengthening School Readiness in Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers; and Magnet Schools: Equal Access to High-Quality Education.
NEW! Social Issues: Health boxes address values and practices relevant to children’s physical and mental health. Examples include Family Chaos Undermines Children’s Well-Being; A Cross-National Perspective on Health Care and Other Policies for Parents and Newborn Babies; and Does Child Care Threaten Infant Attachment Security and Later Adjustment?
Biology and Environment boxes highlight the growing attention to the complex, bidirectional relationship between biology and environment. Examples include A Case of Epigenesis: Smoking During Pregnancy Alters Gene Expression; Prenatal Iron Deficiency and Memory Impairments in Infants of Diabetic Mothers: Findings of ERP Research; Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; and “Mindblindness” and Autism.
Cultural Influences boxes deepen the attention to culture threaded throughout the text and accentuate both cross-cultural and multicultural variations in child development–for example, Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land; Cultural Variation in Sleeping Arrangements; Identity Development among Ethnic Minority Adolescents; and The Impact of Ethnic and Political Violence on Children.
Applying What We Know Tables
This feature summarizes research-based applications, speaking directly to students as parents or future parents and to those pursuing different careers or areas of study, such as teaching, health care, counseling, or social work.
These beautifully illustrated tables summarize major developments within each topical area, providing a convenient overview of the chronology of development.
In-Text Highlighted Key Terms with Definitions, End-of-Chapter Term List, and End-of-Book Glossary
Mastery of terms is promoted through in-text highlighting of key terms and definitions. Key terms also appear in an end-of-chapter page-referenced term list and an end-of-book page-referenced glossary.
8. Unsurpassed Technology — MyDevelopmentLab
Prepared in collaboration with Laura Berk, MyDevelopmentLab includes a variety of assessments that enable continuous evaluation of students’ learning. Extensive video footage, multimedia simulations, “Careers in Human Development,” and interactive activities–all unique to Child Development–are also included.
9. Valuable Teaching Resources
Instructor’s Resource Manual (IRM) Each chapter includes a Chapter-at-a-Glance grid, Brief Chapter Summary, Learning Objectives, detailed Lecture Outlines, Lecture Enhancements, Learning Activities, “Ask Yourself” questions with answers, Suggested Student Readings, and Media Materials list.
Test Bank. The Test Bank contains over 2,000 multiple-choice and essay questions, each page-referenced to chapter content and classified by type.
Computerized Test Bank. This computerized version of the Test Bank, in easy-to-use MyTest software, lets you prepare tests for printing as well as for network and online testing. It has full editing capability.
PowerPoint Presentation. The PowerPoint presentation provides illustrations and outlines of key topics for each chapter of the text. A NEW video-enhanced version is also available to instructors.
“Explorations in Child Development” DVD and Guide. This DVD is over four hours in length and contains 47 four- to ten-minute narrated segments, designed for effective classroom use, that illustrate the many theories, concepts, and milestones of child development. New additions include Preterm Birth, Autism, First-Grade Science Education, Childhood Obesity, Civic Engagement in Adolescence, and Changing Parent-Adolescent Relationships.
Educators know it. Students know it. It’s that inspired moment when something that was difficult to understand suddenly makes sense. Our MyLab products have been designed and refined with a single purpose in mind–to help educators create moments of understanding with their students.
MyDevelopmentLab delivers results in helping students succeed. Its automatically graded assessments, personalized study plan, and interactive eText provide engaging experiences that individualize, stimulate, and measure learning for each student. The Child Development 9e MyDevelopmentLab includes:
MyVirtualChild, an interactive simulation that allows students to raise a child from birth to age 18 and monitor the effects of their parenting decisions over time.
A personalized study plan for each student that promotes planning and strategic study of the subject matter, helping the student focus on areas in which he/she has weaker knowledge and understanding
Assessments tied to many chapter videos and applications, which enable both instructors and students to track progress and get immediate feedback.
The eText lets students access their textbook anytime, anywhere
Extensive video footage, including NEW video segments and assessments.
Biographies of major figures in the field
Mini-chapter on Emerging Adulthood
“Careers in Human Development,” which explains how knowledge of human development is essential for a wide range of career paths.
MyDevelopmentLab can be used by itself or linked to any learning management system. To learn more about how the new MyDevelopmentLab combines learning applications with powerful assessment, visit www.mydevelopmentlab.com.
Laura E. Berk is a distinguished professor of psychology at Illinois State University, where she has taught child and human development to both undergraduate and graduate students for more than three decades. She received her bachelor’s degree in psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, and her master’s and doctoral degrees in child development and educational psychology from the University of Chicago. She has been a visiting scholar at Cornell University, UCLA, Stanford University, and the University of South Australia.
Berk has published widely on the effects of school environments on children’s development, the development of private speech, and recently, the role of make-believe play in development. Her research has been funded by the U.S. Office of Education and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. It has appeared in many prominent journals, including Child Development, Developmental Psychology, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Development and Psychopathology, and Early Childhood Research Quarterly. Her empirical studies have attracted the attention of the general public, leading to contributions to Psychology Today and Scientific American. She has also been featured on National Public Radio’s Morning Edition and in Parents Magazine, Wondertime, and Reader’s Digest.
Berk has served as research editor of Young Children and consulting editor of Early Childhood Research Quarterly. Currently, she is associate editor of the Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology. She is a frequent contributor to edited volumes on early childhood development, having recently authored chapters on the importance of parenting, on make-believe play and self-regulation, and on the kindergarten child. She has also written the chapter on development for The Many Faces of Psychological Research in the Twenty-First Century (Society for the Teaching of Psychology), the article on social development for The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion, the article on Vygotsky for the Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, and the chapter on storytelling as a teaching strategy for Voices of Experience: Memorable Talks from the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology (Association for Psychological Science).
Berk’s books include Private Speech: From Social Interaction to Self-Regulation, Scaffolding Children’s Learning: Vygotsky and Early Childhood Education, Landscapes of Development: An Anthology of Readings, and A Mandate for Playful Learning in Preschool: Presenting the Evidence. In addition to Child Development, she is author of the best-selling texts Infants, Children, and Adolescents and Development Through the Lifespan, published by Pearson. Her book for parents and teachers is Awakening Children’s Minds: How Parents and Teachers Can Make a Difference.
Berk is active in work for children’s causes. In addition to service in her home community, she is a member of the national board of directors and chair of the Chicago advisory board of Jumpstart, a nonprofit organization that provides intensive literacy intervention to thousands of low-income preschoolers across the United States, using college and university students as interveners. Berk is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, Division, 7: Developmental Psychology.