Each chapter opens with “Introduction” and closes with “Chapter Tests.” Preface.
1.Measurement: Its Nature and Function.
Assessment and Measurement.
How Much Precision Is Needed?
Variables That Are Not Directly Observable?
Observation and Quantification.
The Paradox of Testing.
The Respectful Use of Tests.
Measurement and Evaluation in the Educational Process.
Subjectivity and Objectivity.
Educational Decisions Founded on Evaluation.
Essential Knowledge and Skills.
The Goals and Functions of Testing.
Research and Evaluation.
2.Communicating Information: Interpretation of Quantitative Data.
Frequency Distributions, Central Tendency, and Skewness (programmed).
Classification and Tabulation.
The Ungrouped Frequency Distribution.
Central Tendency and Variability.
Comparisons of the Mean, Median, and Mode.
Measures of Variability.
The Meaning of Variability.
The Variance and Standard Deviation.
Which Measure Is Best?
3.The Meaning and Application of Norms.
Norms Are Not Standards.
The Normal Distribution.
Many Measures Report Scores That Are Based on the Normal Curve.
Standard Scores Are Useful in Describing Performance.
Normal Curve Equivalent (NCE) Scores.
Norms Provide a Means of Comparison with a Reference Group.
A Representative Sample Is Needed for Accurate Norms.
Norms Should Be Relevant.
Norms Should Be Current.
Correlation and Prediction (programmed).
The Concept of Correlation.
Correlation and Scatterplots.
Interpreting Correlation Coefficients.
Correlation vs. Causation.
Influence of N.
Some Examples of Criterion-Related Validity.
Another Example of Predictive Validity.
How Large Does a Validity Coefficient Need to Be?
Validity Consequences of the Reliability of the Criterion.
The Effect of Restricted Variability on Criterion-Related Validity.
Errors of Measurement and Reliability.
Reliability and True Scores.
The Standard Error of Measurement.
The Standard Deviation and the Standard Error of Measurement.
Some Test Theory.
Index of Reliability vs. Reliability Coefficient.
Regression Toward the Mean.
Estimating True Scores from Observed Scores.
Test Length, Reliability, and The Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formula.
Estimating Reliability: The Test-Retest Method.
The Split-Half Method.
Reliability via Internal Consistency.
Kuder-Richardson Formula 20.
Kuder-Richardson Formula 21.
What Is a High Reliability Coefficient?
6.Extraneous Factors that Influence Performance of Cognitive Tests.
Test Sophistication, Practice, and Coaching.
Anxiety and Motivation.
The Speed vs. Accuracy Set.
The Acquiescence Set.
The Positional-Preference Set.
The Option Length Set.
The Set to Gamble.
Corrective Measures for the Gambling Set.
Elimination Scoring and Answer-until-correct Procedures.
Some Conclusions Regarding Response Sets.
Mode of Administration.
Advanced Announcement of Testing.
Answer Sheet Format.
II.THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL MEASURES.
7.General Principles of Test Construction: Achievement Measures.
Planning the Test.
Specificity of Objectives.
A Taxonomy of Objectives.
Knowledge Level Items.
Comprehension and Application.
Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation.
Research on the Taxonomy Hierarchy.
Other Item Classifications.
Content and Process Objectives.
Test Items Are Samples.
The Nature of the Test.
Norm-Referenced vs. Criterion-Referenced Testing.
Minimum Competency Testing.
Test Development Plan.
8.Constructing and Using Essay Tests.
Scientific Proficiency Measures: An Early Example.
Essay Tests as Measures of Achievement.
Limitations of the Essay Test.
The Halo Effect.
Item-to-Item Carryover Effects.
Test-to-Test Carryover Effects.
Language Mechanic Effects.
Essay Test Reliability.
Indirect Measures of Writing Ability.
The Essay as a Measure of Writing Ability.
The Decline in Writing Ability.
Essay Tests in College Admissions.
First-Draft Versus Final-Draft Skills.
Contest Validity of Essay Tests in Other Curricular Areas.
Advantages of Essay Tests as Achievement Measures.
Improving the Development and Use of Essay Tests.
Preparing Students to Take Essay Tests.
Constructing Good Essay Tests.
Improving the Grading of Essay Tests.
The Use of Anchor Points in Scoring.
Proper Use of Essay Exercises.
9.Constructing Objective Tests.
Rationale for the Multiple-Choice Item.
Ambiguous vs. Trick Questions.
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Ambiguity.
Inverse Multiple-Choice Items.
Illustrations of Multiple-Choice Items.
General Guidelines for Test Development.
Special Guidelines for Constructing Multiple-Choice Items.
True-False and Two-Option Items.
Suggestions for Constructing True-False Items.
Illustrations of Matching Exercises.
Suggestions for Constructing Matching Exercises.
Illustrations of Short-Answer Items.
Illustrations of Completion Items.
Suggestions for Constructing Short-Answer Items.
10.Item Analysis for Classroom Tests.
Information Yielded by an Item Analysis.
Procedures for an Item Analysis.
The Steps of an Item Analysis.
Item Difficulty and Item Discrimination.
Item Discrimination and Test Reliability.
An Illustrative Analysis.
Item Analysis in State and Large Scale Assessments.
11.The Assessment of Affective Variables.
The Affective Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
Cognitive versus Affective Appraisal.
Thurstone Attitude Scales.
Semantic Differential Scales.
Problems of Affective Measurement.
The Social-Desirability Response Style.
Naturalistic Observation, Unobtrusive and Non-Test Measures.
Invasion of Privacy.
12.Grading and Reporting.
Objections to Grades.
Testing and Grading.
Marks and Criterion-Referenced Measures.
Grading on the Curve.
The Meaning of Marks.
The Criterion of Quality.
Achievement in Relation to an Absolute Standard.
Achievement in Relation to Aptitude.
Individual Student Growth.
Achievement in Relation to Peer Achievement.
A Better Proposal?
Assigning Marks and Weighting Components.
Homework and Marking.
Numbers of Categories.
Suggestions for Improving Marking and Reporting.
13.Measuring Scholastic Aptitude.
The Search for a Valid Measure of Intelligence.
Galton and The Study of Human Differences.
The Stanford-Binet Scale.
Performance and Group Tests.
Changing Views of Intelligence Testing.
Tests Designed for Admissions Decisions.
The Nature of Intelligence.
Wechsler Intelligence Tests.
Other Views of Intelligence.
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC).
Infant Intelligence Scales.
Intelligence Growth Curves.
The Reliability of Intelligence Tests.
The Ratio IQ.
The Deviation IQ.
IQ Constancy: Common Variance Versus Score Stability.
The Relationship Between IQ and Scholastic Achievement.
Intelligence and Occupational Level.
Cultural Influences on Test Scores.
Using Tests to Identify and Help Gifted Children.
Representative Cognitive Ability Tests.
14.Standardized Achievement Tests.
Advantages of Standardized Tests.
The Aptitude-Achievement Continuum.
Norms on Standardized Achievement Tests.
Co-normal Scholastic Aptitude and Achievement Tests.
Item Norms and Class, School, and District Evaluation.
School Versus Individual Norms.
Interpreting Grade Equivalents.
Longitudinal Study of Individual Progress.
Diagnostic Use of Test Results.
Content Validity of Standardized Achievement Tests: The Sampling of the Content Universe.
Teachers' Ratings as Validation Criteria.
Special Problems of Standardized Testing in High School.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).
The School Testing Program.
Selecting the Appropriate Test or Tests.
Locating Available Standardized Tests.
Test Administration and Scoring.
Interpretation of District Results in Relation to Scholastic Aptitude.
Bias and Achievement Tests.
Measuring the Difficulty of Reading Material.
15.Standard Interest, Personality, and Social Measures.
Vocational Interest Inventories.
The Strong Interest Inventory.
The Kuder Interest Inventories.
Ipsative Versus Normative Scales.
Reliability and Validity of Interest Inventories.
Measured Versus Expressed Interests.
Interests, Abilities, and Grades.
The Measurement of Personality Variables.
Traits Assessed by Direct and Naturalistic Observation.
Trait Measurement Through Self-Report.
Special Problems in Personality Measurement.
The Social Desirability Response Style.
California Psychological Inventory.
The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory.
Evaluation of Self-Report Measures.
The Assessment of Motives: Projective Techniques.
The Thematic Apperception Test.
Other Projective Techniques.
Evaluation of Projective Techniques.
Measuring School and Institutional Climate.
Sociometry and Peer Ratings.
The “Guess Who” Technique.
Reliability and Validity of Sociometric Data.
Appraising Socioeconomic Status.
The Warner-Meeker-Eells Scale.
The Hollingshead Index.
A. Resources for the Development and Selection of Measuring Instruments.
B. Major Publishers of Standardized Tests.