Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding Pearson VitalSource eBook (2e) : 9781486013821

Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding Pearson VitalSource eBook (2e)

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Providing the framework students need to go from inquiry to understanding by continuously modeling the application of six key principles of scientific thinking.  Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding teaches students how to test their assumptions, and motivates them to use scientific thinking skills to better understand the field of psychology and the world around them.
Table of contents
1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking: A Framework for Everyday Life
2: Research Methods: Safeguards against Error
3: Biological Psychology: Bridging the Levels of Analysis  
4: Sensation and Perception: How We Sense and Conceptualize the World
5: Consciousness: Expanding the Boundaries of Psychological Inquiry
6: Learning: How Nurture Changes Us
7: Memory: Constructing and Reconstructing Our Pasts
8: Language, Thinking, and Reasoning: Getting Inside Our Talking Heads
9: Intelligence and IQ Testing: Controversy and Consensus
10: Human Development: How and Why We Change
11: Emotion and Motivation: What Moves Us
12: Stress, Coping, and Health: The Mind–Body Interconnection
13: Social Psychology: How Others Affect Us
14: Personality: Who We Are
15: Psychological Disorders: When Adaptation Breaks Down
16: Psychological and Biomedical Treatments: Helping People Change


1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking: A Framework for Everyday Life
What Is Psychology? Science versus Intuition                                                                               
Psychology and Levels of Analysis
What Makes Psychology Challenging—and Fascinating
Why We Can’t Always Trust Our Common Sense
Psychology as a Science
Metaphysical Claims: The Boundaries of Science
Recognizing that We Might Be Wrong  
Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science                                                                      
The Amazing Growth of Popular Psychology
What Is Pseudoscience?
PsychoMythology: The Hot Hand: Reality or Illusion?
The Dangers of Pseudoscience: Why Should We Care?
Scientific Thinking: Distinguishing Fact from Fiction                                                                     
Scientific Skepticism
A Basic Framework for Scientific Thinking
Evaluating Claims: Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables
Psychology’s Past and Present: What a Long, Strange Trip It’s Been                                         
The Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology
The Multifaceted World of Modern Psychology
The Great Debates of Psychology
How Psychology Affects Our Lives
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2: Research Methods: Safeguards against Error
The Beauty and Necessity of Good Research Design
Why We Need Research Designs
Heuristics and Biases: How We Can Be Fooled
Cognitive Biases
The Scientific Method: Toolbox of Skills
Naturalistic Observation: Studying Humans “In the Wild”
Case Study Designs: Getting to Know You
Self-Report Measures and Surveys: Asking People about Themselves and Others
Correlational Designs
Experimental Designs
PsychoMythology: Laboratory Research Doesn’t Apply to the Real World, Right? 
Ethical Issues in Research Design
Tuskegee: A Shameful Moral Tale
Ethical Guidelines for Human Research
Ethical Issues in Animal Research
Statistics: The Language of Psychological Research
Descriptive Statistics: What’s What?
Inferential Statistics: Testing Hypotheses
How People Lie with Statistics
Evaluating Psychological Research
Becoming a Peer Reviewer
Most Reporters Aren’t Scientists: Evaluating Psychology in the Media
Evaluating Claims: Hair-Loss Remedies
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3: Biological Psychology: Bridging the Levels of Analysis
Nerve Cells: Communication Portals                                                                                              
Neurons: The Brain’s Communicators
Electrifying Thought
Chemical Communication: Neurotransmission
Neural Plasticity: How and When the Brain Changes
The Brain–Behavior Network                                                                                                          
The Central Nervous System: The Command Center
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Endocrine System
The Pituitary Gland the Pituitary Hormones
The Adrenal Glands and Adrenaline
Sexual Reproductive Glands and Sex Hormones
Mapping the Mind: The Brain in Action                                                                                         
A Tour of Brain-Mapping Methods
How Much of Our Brain Do We Use?
Which Parts of Our Brain Do We Use for What?
Which Side of Our Brain Do We Use for What?
Psychomythology: Are there Left-Brained versus Right-Brained Persons? 
Evaluating Claims: Diagnosing Your Brain Orientation
Nature and Nurture: Did Your Genes—or Parents—Make You Do It?                                      
How We Came to Be Who We Are
Behavioral Genetics: How We Study Heritability
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4: Sensation and Perception: How We Sense and Conceptualize the World
Two Sides of the Coin: Sensation and Perception
Sensation: Our Senses as Detectives
Perception: When Our Senses Meet Our Minds
Extrasensory Perception (ESP): Fact or Fiction?
Evaluating Claims: Subliminal Persuasion CDs
Seeing: The Visual System
Light: The Energy of Life
The Eye: How We Represent the Visual Realm
Visual Perception
When We Can’t See or Perceive Visually
Hearing: The Auditory System
Sound: Mechanical Vibration
The Structure and Function of the Ear
Auditory Perception
When We Can’t Hear
Smell and Taste: The Sensual Senses
What Are Odors and Flavors?
Sense Receptors for Smell and Taste
Olfactory and Gustatory Perception
When We Can’t Smell or Taste
Our Body Senses: Touch, Body Position, and Balance
The Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain
Proprioception and Vestibular Sense: Body Position and Balance
PsychoMythology: Psychic Healing of Chronic Pain
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5: Consciousness: Expanding the Boundaries of Psychological Inquiry
The Biology of Sleep  
The Circadian Rhythm: The Cycle of Everyday Life
Stages of Sleep
Lucid Dreaming
Disorders of Sleep
Freud’s Dream Protection Theory
Activation–Synthesis Theory
Dreaming and the Forebrain
Neurocognitive Perspectives on Dreaming
Evaluating Claims: Dream Interpretations
Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences  
Hallucinations: Experiencing What Isn’t There
Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experiences
Déjà vu Experiences
PsychoMythology: Age Regression and Past Lives
Drugs and Consciousness  
Substance Abuse and Dependence 
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6: Learning: How Nurture Changes Us
Classical Conditioning  
Pavlov’s Discoveries
Principles of Classical Conditioning
Higher-Order Conditioning
Applications of Classical Conditioning to Daily Life
PsychoMythology: Are We What We Eat?
Operant Conditioning  
Distinguishing Operant Conditioning from Classical Conditioning
The Law of Effect
B. F. Skinner and Reinforcement
Terminology of Operant Conditioning
Schedules of Reinforcement
Applications of Operant Conditioning
Putting Classical and Operant Conditioning Together
Cognitive Models of Learning  
S-O-R Psychology: Throwing Thinking Back into the Mix
Latent Learning
Observational Learning
New Frontiers: Mirror Neurons and Observational Learning 
Insight Learning
Biological Influences on Learning  
Conditioned Taste Aversions
Preparedness and Phobias
Instinctive Drift
Learning Fads: Do They Work?  
Sleep-Assisted Learning 
Accelerated Learning
Discovery Learning
Learning Styles
Evaluating Claims: Sleep-Assisted Learning
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7: Memory: Constructing and Reconstructing Our Pasts
How Memory Operates: The Memory Assembly Line
The Paradox of Memory
The Reconstructive Nature of Memory
The Three Systems of Memory
The Three Processes of Memory
Encoding: The “Call Numbers” of the Mind
Storage: Filing Our Memories Away
Retrieval: Heading for the “Stacks”
PsychoMythology: Smart Pills
Evaluating Claims: Memory Boosters
The Biology of Memory
The Neural Basis of Memory Storage
Where Is Memory Stored?
The Biology of Memory Deterioration
The Development of Memory: Acquiring a Personal History
Memory over Time
Infants’ Implicit Memory: Talking with Their Feet
Infantile Amnesia
False Memories: When Good Memory Goes Bad
False Memories
Implanting False Memories in the Lab
Generalizing from the Lab to Real World
The Seven Sins of Memory
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8: Language, Thinking, and Reasoning: Getting Inside Our Talking Heads
How Does Language Work?
The Features of Language
How Did Language Come About and Why?
How Do Children Learn Language?
Special Cases of Language Learning
Critical Periods for Language Learning
Theoretical Accounts of Language Acquisition
Nonhuman Animal Communication
PsychoMythology: Do Twins Have Their Own Language?  
Do We Think in Words? The Relation between Language and Thought
Linguistic Determinism: We Speak, Therefore We Think
Linguistic Relativity: Language Gives Thought a Gentle Nudge
Reading: Recognizing the Written Word
Learning to Read
Speed-Reading—A Hoax in Sheep’s Clothing?
Evaluating Claims: Speed Reading Courses
Thinking and Reasoning
Cognitive Economy—Imposing Order on Our World
Decision Making: Choices, Choices, and More Choices
Problem Solving: Accomplishing Our Goals
Models of the Mind
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9: Intelligence and IQ Testing: Controversy and Consensus
What Is Intelligence? Definitional Confusion  
Intelligence as Sensory Capacity: Out of Sight, Out of Mind
Intelligence as Abstract Thinking  
Intelligence as General versus Specific Abilities
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence  
Multiple Intelligences: Different Ways of Being Smart  
Biological Bases of Intelligence  
Intelligence Testing: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  
How We Calculate IQ
The Eugenics Movement: Misuses and Abuses of IQ Testing  
IQ Testing Today  
College Admissions Tests: What Do They Measure? 
Reliability of IQ Scores: Is IQ Forever?  
Validity of IQ Scores: Predicting Life Outcomes  
A Tale of Two Tails: From Mental Retardation to Genius  
PsychoMythology: Do Standardized Tests Predict Grades?
Genetic and Environmental Influences on IQ  
Exploring Genetic Influences on IQ  
Exploring Environmental Influences on IQ  
Evaluating Claims: IQ Boosters
Group Difference in IQ: The Science and the Politics  
Sex Differences in IQ and Mental Abilities 
Racial Differences in IQ  
The Rest of the Story: Other Dimensions of Intellect 
Interests and Intellect
Emotional Intelligence: Is EQ as Important as IQ?  
Why Smart People Believe Strange Things 
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10: Human Development: How and Why We Change
Special Considerations in Human Development
Post Hoc Fallacy
Bidirectional Influences
Keeping an Eye on Cohort Effects
The Influence of Early Experience
Clarifying the Nature–Nurture Debate
The Developing Body: Physical and Motor Development
Conception and Prenatal Development: From Zygote to Baby
Infant Motor Development: How Babies Get Going
Growth and Physical Development throughout Childhood
Physical Maturation in Adolescence: The Power of Puberty
Physical Development in Adulthood
Evaluating Claims: Anti-Aging Treatments
The Developing Mind: Cognitive Development
Theories of Cognitive Development
Cognitive Landmarks of Early Development
Cognitive Changes in Adolescence
Cognitive Function in Adulthood
PsychoMythology: The Mozart Effect, Baby Einstein, and Creating “Superbabies”
The Developing Personality: Social and Moral Development
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Social and Emotional Development in Adolescence
Life Transitions in Adulthood
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11: Emotion and Motivation: What Moves Us
Theories of Emotion: What Causes Our Feelings?
Discrete Emotions Theory: Emotions as Evolved Expressions
Cognitive Theories of Emotion: Think First, Feel Later
Unconscious Influences on Emotion
Nonverbal Expression of Emotion: The Eyes, Bodies, and Cultures Have It
The Importance of Nonverbal Cues
Body Language and Gestures 
Personal Space
Lying and Lie Detection
PsychoMythology: Is “Truth Serum” Really a Truth Serum?
Happiness and Self-Esteem: Science Confronts Pop Psychology
Positive Psychology: Psychology’s Future or Psychology’s Fad?
What Happiness Is Good For
What Makes Us Happy: Myths and Realities
Forecasting Happiness
Self-Esteem: Important or Over-hyped?
Motivation: Our Wants and Needs
Motivation: A Beginner’s Guide
Hunger, Eating, and Eating Disorders
Sexual Motivation
Evaluating Claims: Diets and Weight-Loss Plans
Attraction, Love, and Hate: The Greatest Mysteries of Them All
Social Influences on Interpersonal Attraction
Love: Science Confronts the Mysterious
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12: Stress, Coping, and Health: The Mind–Body Interconnection
What Is Stress?
Stress in the Eye of the Beholder: Three Approaches
No Two Stresses Are Created Equal: Measuring Stress
How We Adapt to Stress: Change and Challenge
The Mechanics of Stress: Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome
The Diversity of Stress Responses
PsychoMythology: Almost All People Are Traumatized by Highly Aversive Events
The Brain–Body Reaction to Stress
The Immune System
Psychoneuroimmunology: Our Bodies, Our Environments, and Our Health
Stress-Related Illnesses: A Biopsychosocial View
Coping with Stress
Social Support
Gaining Control
Flexible Coping
Individual Differences: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Personality
Evaluating Claims: Stress Reduction and Relaxation Techniques
Promoting Good Health—and Less Stress!
Toward a Healthy Lifestyle
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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13: Social Psychology: How Others Affect Us
What Is Social Psychology?  
Humans as a Social Species
The Fundamental Attribution Error: The Great Lesson of Social Psychology
Social Comparison: Person See, Person Do
Social Influence: Conformity and Obedience  
Conformity: The Asch Paradigm
Deindividuation: Losing Our Typical Identities
Obedience: The Psychology of Following Orders
Helping and Harming Others: Prosocial Behavior and Aggression 
Safety in Numbers or Danger in Numbers? Bystander Nonintervention
Social Loafing: With a Little Too Much Help from My Friends
Prosocial Behavior and Altruism
Aggression: Why We Hurt Others
PsychoMythology: Is Brainstorming in Groups a Good Way to Generate Ideas? 
Attitudes and Persuasion: Changing Minds 
Attitudes and Behavior
Origins of Attitudes
Attitude Change: Wait, Wait, I Just Changed My Mind
Persuasion: Humans as Salespeople
Evaluating Claims: Work-from-Home Jobs
Prejudice and Discrimination  
The Nature of Prejudice
Roots of Prejudice: A Tangled Web
Prejudice “Behind the Scenes”
Combating Prejudice: Some Remedies
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14: Personality: Who We Are
Personality: What Is It and How Can We Study It?  
Researching the Causes of Personality: Overview of Twin and Adoption Studies
Birth Order: Does It Matter?
Behavior-Genetic Studies: A Note of Caution
Psychoanalytic Theory: The Controversial Legacy of Sigmund Freud and His Followers  
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
The Id, Ego, and Superego: The Structure of Personality 
Stages of Psychosexual Development
Psychoanalytic Theory Evaluated Scientifically
Freud’s Followers: The Neo-Freudians
Behavioral and Social Learning Theories of Personality   
Behavioral Views of the Causes of Personality
Social Learning Theories of Personality: The Causal Role of Thinking Resurrected
Behavioral and Social Learning Theories Evaluated Scientifically
Humanistic Models of Personality: The Third Force   
Rogers and Maslow: Self-Actualization Realized and Unrealized 
Humanistic Models Evaluated Scientifically
Trait Models of Personality: Consistencies in Our Behavior   
Identifying Traits: Factor Analysis
The Big Five Model of Personality
Basic Tendencies versus Characteristic Adaptations
Can Personality Traits Change?
Trait Models Evaluated Scientifically
Personality Assessment: Measuring and Mismeasuring the Psyche  
Famous—and Infamous—Errors in Personality Assessment
Structured Personality Tests
Projective Tests
Common Pitfalls in Personality Assessment
PsychoMythology: How Accurate Is Criminal Profiling?
Evaluating Claims: Online Personality Tests
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15: Psychological Disorders: When Adaptation Breaks Down
Conceptions of Mental Illness: Yesterday and Today  
What Is Mental Illness? A Deceptively Complex Question
Historical Conceptions of Mental Illness: From Demons to Asylums
Psychiatric Diagnoses Across Cultures
Special Considerations in Psychiatric Classification and Diagnosis
Psychiatric Diagnosis Today: The DSM-IV
Evaluating Claims: Online Tests for Mental Disorders
PsychoMythology: The Insanity Defense: Free Will versus Determinism  
Anxiety Disorders: The Many Faces of Worry and Fear  
Panic Disorder: Terror That Comes out of the Blue
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Perpetual Worry
Phobias: Irrational Fears
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Enduring Effects of Experiencing Horror
Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Trapped in One’s Thoughts
Explanations for Anxiety Disorders: The Roots of Pathological Worry and Fear
Mood Disorders and Suicide 
Major Depressive Disorder: Common, But Not the Common Cold
Explanations for Major Depressive Disorder: A Tangled Web
Bipolar Disorder: When Mood Goes to Extremes
Suicide: Facts and Fiction
Personality and Dissociative Disorders: The Disrupted and Divided Self  
Personality Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
The Enigma of Schizophrenia  
Symptoms of Schizophrenia: The Shattered Mind
Explanations for Schizophrenia: The Roots of a Shattered Mind
Childhood Disorders: Recent Controversies
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder
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16: Psychological and Biomedical Treatments: Helping People Change
Psychotherapy: Clients and Practitioners
Who Seeks and Benefits from Treatment?
Who Practices Psychotherapy?
Insight Therapies: Acquiring Understanding
Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Therapies: Freud’s Legacy
Humanistic Psychotherapy: Achieving Our Potential
Group Therapies: The More, the Merrier
Family Therapies: Treating the Dysfunctional Family System
Behavioral Approaches: Changing Maladaptive Actions
Systematic Desensitization and Exposure Therapies: Learning Principles in Action
Modeling in Therapy: Learning by Watching
Operant Procedures: Consequences Count
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies: Learning to Think Differently
Is Psychotherapy Effective?
The Dodo Bird Verdict: Alive or Extinct?
How Different Groups of People Respond to Psychotherapy
Common Factors
Empirically Supported Treatments
Why Can Ineffective Therapies Appear to Be Helpful? How We Can Be Fooled
Evaluating Claims: Psychotherapies
PsychoMythology: Are Self-Help Books Always Helpful?
Biomedical Treatments: Medications, Electrical Stimulation, and Surgery
Psychopharmacotherapy: Targeting Brain Chemistry
Electrical Stimulation: Conceptions and Misconceptions
Psychosurgery: An Absolute Last Resort
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